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Research & Resources

TMS Therapy usually involves several repetitive sessions; this is referred to as repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). TMS has been studied extensively since 1985 and represents the most active area of neurostimulation techniques in psychiatry, pain management and rehabilitation medicine. There is a wealth of medical research on the advances and efficacies of this form of treatment, that continues to grow.

TMS Education Sessions for Medical Practitioners

Modalis offers short educational sessions for medical practitioners and clinics who are interested in learning more about TMS. During these sessions we can provide more information on how TMS works and what this means for your patients, as well as answer any questions you have.

Please fill out the form below to register your interest for an educational session:

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Clinical Evidence

TMS has been used since 1985, with a wide range of research conducted in the field since then. In 2007, TMS for depression was approved in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods Association (TGA), with Medicare rebates available for eligible patients since 2021.

In clinical practice TMS is only administered for an illness where there is adequate evidence of clinical indication and effectiveness, and after a detailed psychiatric assessment.

For more information on the evidence behind TMS, please see the following resources:

Depression

  • Blumberger DM, Vila-Rodriguez F, Thorpe KE, Feffer K, Noda Y, Giacobbe P, Knyahnytska Y, Kennedy SH, Lam RW, Daskalakis ZJ, Downar J. Effectiveness of theta burst versus high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression (THREE-D): a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2018 Apr 28;391(10131):1683-1692. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30295-2.
  • Brunoni AR, Chaimani A, Moffa AH, Razza LB, Gattaz WF, Daskalakis ZJ, Carvalho AF. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Acute Treatment of Major Depressive Episodes: A Systematic Review With Network Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 1;74(2):143-152. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.3644.
  • Fitzgerald PB, Grace N, Hoy KE, Bailey M, Daskalakis ZJ. An open label trial of clustered maintenance rTMS for patients with refractory depression. Brain Stimul. 2013 May;6(3):292-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2012.05.003.
  • Malhi GS, Bassett D, Boyce P, Bryant R, Fitzgerald PB, Fritz K, Hopwood M, Lyndon B, Mulder R, Murray G, Porter R, Singh AB. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2015 Dec;49(12):1087-206. doi: 10.1177/0004867415617657.
  • Rossi S, Hallett M, Rossini PM, Pascual-Leone A; Safety of TMS Consensus Group. Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Dec;120(12):2008-2039. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016.
  • Schutter DJ. Antidepressant efficacy of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in double-blind sham-controlled designs: a meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2009 Jan;39(1):65-75. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708003462.
  • Slotema CW, Blom JD, Hoek HW, Sommer IE. Should we expand the toolbox of psychiatric treatment methods to include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of rTMS in psychiatric disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Jul;71(7):873-84. doi: 10.4088/JCP.08m04872gre.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Rehn S, Eslick GD, Brakoulias V. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Different Cortical Targets Used in Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Psychiatr Q. 2018 Sep;89(3):645-665. doi: 10.1007/s11126-018-9566-7.
  • Rossi S, Hallett M, Rossini PM, Pascual-Leone A; Safety of TMS Consensus Group. Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Dec;120(12):2008-2039. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016.
  • Zhou DD, Wang W, Wang GM, Li DQ, Kuang L. An updated meta-analysis: Short-term therapeutic effects of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2017 Jun;215:187-196. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.03.033.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

  • Kan RLD, Zhang BBB, Zhang JJQ, Kranz GS. Non-invasive brain stimulation for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transl Psychiatry. 2020 May;10(1):168. doi:10.1038/s41398-020-0851-5
  • Lefaucheur JP, Aleman A, Baeken C, Benninger DH, Brunelin J, Di Lazzaro V, Filipović SR, Grefkes C, Hasan A, Hummel FC, Jääskeläinen SK, Langguth B, Leocani L, Londero A, Nardone R, Nguyen JP, Nyffeler T, Oliveira-Maia AJ, Oliviero A, Padberg F, Palm U, Paulus W, Poulet E, Quartarone A, Rachid F, Rektorová I, Rossi S, Sahlsten H, Schecklmann M, Szekely D, Ziemann U. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): An update (2014-2018). Clin Neurophysiol. 2020 Feb;131(2):474-528. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.002.
  • Petrosino NJ, Cosmo C, Berlow YA, Zandvakili A, van ‘t Wout-Frank M, Philip NS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for post-traumatic stress disorder. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2021 Oct 28;11:20451253211049921. doi: 10.1177/20451253211049921.

Pain Management

  • Cruccu G, Aziz TZ, Garcia-Larrea L, Hansson P, Jensen TS, Lefaucheur JP, Simpson BA, Taylor RS. EFNS guidelines on neurostimulation therapy for neuropathic pain. Eur J Neurol. 2007 Sep;14(9):952-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2007.01916.x.
  • Hou WH, Wang TY, Kang JH. The effects of add-on non-invasive brain stimulation in fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Aug;55(8):1507-17. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kew205.
  • Lefaucheur JP, Aleman A, Baeken C, Benninger DH, Brunelin J, Di Lazzaro V, Filipović SR, Grefkes C, Hasan A, Hummel FC, Jääskeläinen SK, Langguth B, Leocani L, Londero A, Nardone R, Nguyen JP, Nyffeler T, Oliveira-Maia AJ, Oliviero A, Padberg F, Palm U, Paulus W, Poulet E, Quartarone A, Rachid F, Rektorová I, Rossi S, Sahlsten H, Schecklmann M, Szekely D, Ziemann U. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): An update (2014-2018). Clin Neurophysiol. 2020 Feb;131(2):474-528. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.002.
  • Mhalla A, Baudic S, de Andrade DC, Gautron M, Perrot S, Teixeira MJ, Attal N, Bouhassira D. Long-term maintenance of the analgesic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in fibromyalgia. Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1478-1485. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.034.

Tinnitus

  • Theodoroff SM, Griest SE, Folmer RL. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for tinnitus: using the Tinnitus Functional Index to predict benefit in a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2017 Feb 9;18(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s13063-017-1807-9.
  • Liang Z, Yang H, Cheng G, Huang L, Zhang T, Jia Hl. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic tinnitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2020 Nov; 20:1-13. doi: 10.1186/s12888-020-02947-9.

Schizophrenia (Auditory Hallucinations)

  • Galletly C, Castle D, Dark F, Humberstone V, Jablensky A, Killackey E, Kulkarni J, McGorry P, Nielssen O, Tran N. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016 May;50(5):410-72. doi: 10.1177/0004867416641195.
  • Matheson SL, Green MJ, Loo C, Carr VJ. Quality assessment and comparison of evidence for electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for schizophrenia: a systematic meta-review. Schizophr Res. 2010 May;118(1-3):201-10. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2010.01.002.

Other Conditions

  • Lefaucheur JP, Aleman A, Baeken C, Benninger DH, Brunelin J, Di Lazzaro V, Filipović SR, Grefkes C, Hasan A, Hummel FC, Jääskeläinen SK, Langguth B, Leocani L, Londero A, Nardone R, Nguyen JP, Nyffeler T, Oliveira-Maia AJ, Oliviero A, Padberg F, Palm U, Paulus W, Poulet E, Quartarone A, Rachid F, Rektorová I, Rossi S, Sahlsten H, Schecklmann M, Szekely D, Ziemann U. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): An update (2014-2018). Clin Neurophysiol. 2020 Feb;131(2):474-528. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.002.

Further Reading

  • Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ. (2012) A practical guide to the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Brain Stimulation 5: 287-296.
  • Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ. (2011) The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Expert Rev. Med. Devices 8: 85–95.
  • George MS, Lisanby SH, Avery D et al. (2010) Daily left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 67:507-516.
  • Loo CK, Mitchell PB. (2005) A review of the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatment for depression, and current and future strategies to optimize efficacy. Journal of Affective Disorders 88: 255–267.
  • O’Reardon JP, Solvason HB, Janicak PG, et al. (2007) Efficacy and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depression: a multisite randomized controlled trial. Biological Psychiatry 62: 1208–1216.
  • Rossi S, Hallett M, Rossini PM, Pascual-Leone A; Safety of TMS Consensus Group. Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Dec;120(12):2008-2039. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016.
  • Taylor R, Galvez V and Loo C. (2018) Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) safety: a practical guide for psychiatrists. Australasian Psychiatry 26: 189-192.

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Stirling WA 6021

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8 Davidson Terrace
Joondalup WA 6027

Modalis Wembley

187 Cambridge Street
Wembley WA 6014

Modalis Midland

152 Morrison Road
Midland WA 6056

Modalis East Fremantle

137 George Street
East Fremantle WA 6158

Modalis Cockburn

850 North Lake Road
Cockburn Central WA 6164

Modalis Wellard

20 Ivory Way
Wellard WA 6170

Modalis Peel

16 Sutton Street
Mandurah WA 6210

Modalis Stirling

33 Cedric Street
Stirling WA 6021

Modalis Joondalup

8 Davidson Terrace
Joondalup WA 6027

Modalis Wembley

187 Cambridge Street
Wembley WA 6014

Modalis Midland

152 Morrison Road
Midland WA 6056

Modalis East Fremantle

137 George Street
East Fremantle WA 6158

Modalis Cockburn

850 North Lake Road
Cockburn Central WA 6164

Modalis Wellard

20 Ivory Way
Wellard WA 6170

Modalis Peel

16 Sutton Street
Mandurah WA 6210

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